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Structure-Activity Relationships of Haemolytic Saponins

Abstract : The haemolytic activity of 59 samples, natural or partially synthetic pure saponins and mixtures thereof, was determined. The tested saponins possessed triterpenic genins and six structural skeleton types were studied. Structure-activity relationships were established by comparison of the functional groups of each saponin and of the branched sugar chains attached to aglycone. The haemolytic activity is shown to depend on the number of sugar units in the chains, as well as on the presence of an osidic chain in position 3 or of functional groups on the genin such as carboxylic or 16a-OH. Comparison of activities of monodesmosidic and bidesmosidic saponins showed that monodesmosidic saponins were generally more active and suggested a polar balance between the two sugar chains at positions 3 and 28. Twelve saponins showed strong haemolytic activity and five possessed a Haemolytic Index (HI) greater than 100,000, such as the a- and ß-aescines (HI: 200,000).
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Laurence Voutquenne, Catherine Lavaud, Georges Massiot, Louisette Le Men-Olivier. Structure-Activity Relationships of Haemolytic Saponins. Pharmaceutical biology, Taylor & Francis, 2002, 40 (4), pp.253-262. ⟨10.1076/phbi.⟩. ⟨hal-01996982⟩



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