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Risk factors for sporadic toxoplasmosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract : Toxoplasmosis is considered as the most prevalent parasitic zoonotic infection worldwide. The parasitic cycle is mostly known, but the relative contribution of different sources and pathways of transmission was not previously studied by a meta-analysis. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies were performed to determine the main risk factors associated with sporadic Toxoplasma infection. Suitable scientific articles were identified through a systematic literature search and subjected to a methodological quality assessment. Mixed-effects meta-analysis models were adjusted by population type – children, mixed population, and pregnant women – to appropriate data partitions. 187 primary studies passed the quality assessment stage, investigating risk factors for sporadic infection with Toxoplasma gondii conducted between 1983 and 2016. Cases were defined by serology. The meta-analysis of Toxoplasma sporadic infections revealed the significance of transmission by environmental factors such as contact with soil and contact with animals, in particular cats. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat and unwashed vegetables significantly increased the odds of acquiring the disease. Shellfish and raw milk were identified as significant sources of toxoplasmosis. Almost all meat categories were identified as risk factors: pork, poultry, beef, processed meat, lamb, and game meat. Contaminated drinking water may play a role in the acquisition of infection. Moreover, the lack of hygiene in preparing food was identified as a risk factor. A significant risk factor for pregnant women is traveling abroad. Lastly, blood transfusion (in pregnant women) and immunocompromised conditions were found associated with positive serology. The broad definition of exposures and the use of serology for the case definition are the main limitations for the interpretation of the results of this meta-analysis. The transmission pathways require further investigations using longitudinal studies and subtyping approaches.
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https://hal.univ-reims.fr/hal-03086254
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 22, 2020 - 2:14:31 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 14, 2021 - 1:10:13 PM

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Anne Thebault, Pauline Kooh, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Isabelle Villena. Risk factors for sporadic toxoplasmosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Microbial Risk Analysis, 2021, 17, pp.100133. ⟨10.1016/j.mran.2020.100133⟩. ⟨hal-03086254⟩

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