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Do Blood Eosinophils Predict in-Hospital Mortality or Severity of Disease in SARS-CoV-2 Infection? A Retrospective Multicenter Study

Abstract : Introduction: Healthcare systems worldwide have been battling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes including viral infections. We focus our study on the prognostic value of eosinopenia as a marker of disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Between 1 March and 30 April 2020, we conducted a multicenter and retrospective study on a cohort of COVID-19 patients (moderate or severe disease) who were hospitalized after presenting to the emergency department (ED). We led our study in six major hospitals of northeast France, one of the outbreak’s epicenters in Europe. Results: We have collected data from 1035 patients, with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. More than three quarters of them (76.2%) presented a moderate form of the disease, while the remaining quarter (23.8%) presented a severe form requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Mean circulating eosinophils rate, at admission, varied according to disease severity (p < 0.001), yet it did not differ between survivors and non-survivors (p = 0.306). Extreme eosinopenia (=0/mm3) was predictive of severity (aOR = 1.77, p = 0.009); however, it was not predictive of mortality (aOR = 0.892, p = 0.696). The areas under the Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve were, respectively, 58.5% (CI95%: 55.3–61.7%) and 51.4% (CI95%: 46.8–56.1%) for the ability of circulating eosinophil rates to predict disease severity and mortality. Conclusion: Eosinopenia is very common and often profound in cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Eosinopenia was not a useful predictor of mortality; however, undetectable eosinophils (=0/mm3) were predictive of disease severity during the initial ED management.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 24, 2021 - 12:17:25 PM
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Pierrick Le Borgne, Laure Abensur Vuillaume, Karine Alamé, François Lefebvre, Sylvie Chabrier, et al.. Do Blood Eosinophils Predict in-Hospital Mortality or Severity of Disease in SARS-CoV-2 Infection? A Retrospective Multicenter Study. Microorganisms, MDPI, 2021, 9 (2), pp.334. ⟨10.3390/microorganisms9020334⟩. ⟨hal-03269816⟩



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