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Coinfection of Parvovirus B19 with Influenza A/H1N1 Causes Fulminant Myocarditis and Pneumonia. An Autopsy Case Report

Abstract : Parvovirus-B19 (PVB19) is a frequent causative agent of myocarditis. For unclear reasons, viral reactivation can cause acute myocarditis, a leading cause of sudden death in the young. Influenza A/H1N1(2009) virus (IAV/H1N1) is known for causing flu/pneumonia, but the heart is rarely involved. Co-infections of cardiotropic viruses are rarely reported and the mechanisms of viral interactions remain unknown. A 5-year old girl had a flu-like syndrome, when she suddenly presented with a respiratory distress and cardiac arrest. At autopsy, the lungs were found haemorrhagic. Lungs’ histology showed severe bronchiolitis, diffuse haemorrhagic necrosis, and mononuclear inflammation. In the heart, a moderate inflammation was found with no necrosis. IAV/H1N1 was detected in nasal and tracheal swabs, lungs, and the heart. The viral load was high in the lungs, but low in the heart. PVB19 was detected in the heart with a high viral load. Viral coinfection increases the risk of severe outcome but the mechanisms of interaction between viruses are poorly understood. In our case, viral loads suggested a reactivated PVB19-induced acute myocarditis during an IAV/H1N1 pneumonia. Viral interactions may involve an IAV/H1N1-induced cytokine storm, with a fulminant fatal outcome. Clinically, our case shows the importance of investigating inflammatory pathways as therapeutic targets.
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https://hal.univ-reims.fr/hal-03318490
Contributor : Domitille Callon <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, August 10, 2021 - 10:51:45 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, August 11, 2021 - 3:27:56 AM

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Domitille Callon, Fatma Berri, Anne-Laure Lebreil, Paul Fornès, Laurent Andreoletti. Coinfection of Parvovirus B19 with Influenza A/H1N1 Causes Fulminant Myocarditis and Pneumonia. An Autopsy Case Report. Pathogens, MDPI, 2021, 10 (8), pp.958. ⟨10.3390/pathogens10080958⟩. ⟨hal-03318490⟩

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