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Surfaces and Air Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Using High-Flow Nasal Oxygenation or Assisted Mechanical Ventilation in Intensive Care Unit Rooms of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019

Abstract : Abstract Background Understanding patterns of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for infection prevention policies. Methods We screened surfaces and air samples from single-bed intensive-care unit rooms of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viable viruses. Results We evidenced viral RNA environmental contamination in 76% of 100 surfaces samples and in 30% of 40 air samples without any viable virus detection by cell culture assays. No significant differences of viral RNA levels on surfaces and in ambient air were observed between rooms of patients with assisted mechanical ventilation and those of patients with a high-flow nasal cannula system. Using an original experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection model of surfaces, we determined that infectious viruses may have been present on benches within 15 hours before the time of sampling in patient rooms. Conclusions We observed that SARS-CoV-2 environmental contamination around patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in single-bed ICU rooms was extensive and that a high-flow nasal cannula system did not generate more viral aerosolization than a mechanical ventilation system in patients with COVID-19. Despite an absence of SARS-CoV-2 viable particles in study samples, our experimental model confirmed the need to apply strict environmental disinfection procedures and classic standard and droplet precautions in ICU wards.
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https://hal.univ-reims.fr/hal-03561938
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 8, 2022 - 3:37:43 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, February 9, 2022 - 3:18:55 AM

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Anne-Laure Lebreil, Vincent Greux, Marie Glenet, Antoine Huguenin, Yohan N’guyen, et al.. Surfaces and Air Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Using High-Flow Nasal Oxygenation or Assisted Mechanical Ventilation in Intensive Care Unit Rooms of Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019. Journal of Infectious Diseases, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022, 225 (3), pp.385-391. ⟨10.1093/infdis/jiab564⟩. ⟨hal-03561938⟩

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