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Caractérisation des écoulements souterrains en milieu fissuré par approche couplée hydrologie-géochimie-hydrodynamisme : application au massif de l'Ursuya (Pays Basque, France)

Abstract : Hard-rock aquifers are one of the major challenges for the current hydrogeology. These fractured formations are intensively exploited for drinking water supply becoming an essential resource for many people. The metamorphic massif of Ursuya (France, 64) is one of this strategic aquifer. A multidisciplinary approach has led to understand the functioning of this system.The results help to progress in the knowledge of discontinuous media and they provide supports for a rational management of this resource.The input signal is characterized by both quantitative and qualitative ways. Monitoring of climate parameters is used to estimate the amount of aquifer recharge. Isotopic characterization of rainwater highlights the principal Atlantic origin of air masses which are responsible of precipitation on the north-western Basque Country. Some rainfall events are also due to atmospheric circulation over the Iberian Peninsula, the Northern Europe and the Mediterranean region. The chemical composition of rainwater, resulting from these origins, is characterized by a low acidity and sometimes by high concentrations of anthropogenic elements.The hydrochemistry of groundwater is studied in conjunction with residence time data. These are acquired by the interpretation of 3H, CFCs and SF6concentrations. The chemical characteristics, the measured residence times (less than 10 years to over than 50 years) and the associated mixing processes allow the achievement of a conceptual model of groundwater flow. It point out the role of the weathering profile (from the surface to the depth: weathered layer, fractured rock and fresh bedrock) from the point of view of the mineralization as well as the flowpaths.A quantitative approach is finally proposed. Boreholes studies show highly heterogeneous hydrodynamic properties (10-4m s-1< K <10-8m s-1). Weathered materials provide a storage capacity and a smoothing of the recharge variations, these results are synthesized and validated by a numerical model. The simulations show strong interactions between the surface flow network and the water table. It also highlights the low impact of the current groundwater exploitation on the aquifer and that climate change will not significantly modify the groundwater flows in the coming decades. Nevertheless, a decrease of the springs and streams flow is probable. This numerical model and all these results constitute the basis for a rational management of water resources in the Ursuya aquifer.
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J. Jaunat. Caractérisation des écoulements souterrains en milieu fissuré par approche couplée hydrologie-géochimie-hydrodynamisme : application au massif de l'Ursuya (Pays Basque, France). Hydrologie. Université de Bordeaux 3, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-02944609⟩

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