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Intégrer les contributions citoyennes aux dispositifs de gestion de crise : l'apport des médias sociaux

Abstract : The management of civil security crises is the responsibility of a set of institutions and professional actors. However, the growing use of social media asserts the major role played by citizens in its implementation.From an interdisciplinary approach (information and communication sciences, computer sciences), our work proposes to study the integration of citizens’ contributions to crisis management systems, especially via social media. This research contributes to the field of crisis informatics. It is presented according to four thematic axes: i) the use of social media by citizen communities in crisis situations, ii) the practices of professional actors regarding the integration of citizen contributions, iii) the opportunities to reinforce interactions between professionals and citizens in crisis management, and iv) the integration of citizen initiatives within a software tool to orchestrate the response.First, our work presents how citizens appropriate social media functionalities to meet specific needs in crisis situations. We reconsider the notion of volunteerism in crisis management and map the diversity of citizen contributions that can be perceived via social media.Secondly, we study how the practices of the actors of French departmental fire and rescue services (SDIS) integrate this emergence of citizen contributions. Although we note a certain maturity in the use of social media in crisis management units, we observe certain reticence that hinders their adoption. When it comes to integrating citizen initiatives into response operations, SDIS professionals are generally reluctant to involve citizens in their rescue missions. However, the local level seems more appropriate for the involvement of volunteers.Thirdly, our research presents areas of work and reflection to support the civil security institutions in a better integration of citizens’ contributions. It brings theoretical considerations on the collaborative aspects of interactions between professionals and citizens.Fourthly, our work proposes to model the concept of citizen initiative, and to set up orchestration modes for their integration within the R-IO Suite software. Through a case study implemented in the software, we demonstrate the possibilities for a crisis management unit to lead a crisis response involving both professional and citizen actors.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03697153
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 16, 2022 - 3:04:47 PM
Last modification on : Friday, June 17, 2022 - 3:41:19 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03697153, version 1

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Robin Batard. Intégrer les contributions citoyennes aux dispositifs de gestion de crise : l'apport des médias sociaux. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021IPPAT019⟩. ⟨tel-03697153⟩

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