Evaluation of voriconazole anti-Acanthamoeba polyphaga in vitro activity, rat cornea penetration and efficacy against experimental rat Acanthamoeba keratitis

Abstract : Background: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a sight-threatening infectious disease. Its effective and safe medical therapy remains highly debated. Recently, voriconazole, a monotriazole with noted in vitro activity against a large variety of fungi, has been successfully used both topically and systemically to treat human AK cases. Objectives: To measure anti-Acanthamoeba polyphaga in vitro activity, anti-rat AK efficiency and rat cornea penetration of eye-drop and oral voriconazole. Methods: A. polyphaga was maintained in axenic cultures. In vitro, amoebicidal and cysticidal activities of voriconazole were measured using an XTT assay. AK lesions of Sprague Dawley rats were scored from grade 0 to grade 3. For 21 days, from day 7 post-infection, voriconazole (1% solution) eye drops were instilled or voriconazole was administered by gavage (60 mg/kg/day). After killing, superficial corneal epithelium scrapings were cultured and analysed by PCR, and eye-globe histology was performed. Cornea and plasma concentrations were determined using 2D HPLC separation and tandem MS. Results: In vitro, voriconazole inhibited trophozoite proliferation with an IC50 value of 0.02 mg/L and an IC90 value of 2.86 mg/L; no cysticidal effect was found. In AK rats, eye drops reduced clinical worsening from day 7 to day 14 post-infection and oral voriconazole was not effective. Voriconazole cornea concentrations were directly dependent on the frequency of eye-drop instillations, which resulted in lower plasma concentrations, whilst oral voriconazole resulted in lower cornea concentrations. Conclusions: Present data underline the need for high-frequency eye-drop instillation regimens for efficient AK therapy.
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Julie Gueudry, Laetitia Le Goff, Patricia Compagnon, Sabine Lefevre, Elodie Colasse, et al.. Evaluation of voriconazole anti-Acanthamoeba polyphaga in vitro activity, rat cornea penetration and efficacy against experimental rat Acanthamoeba keratitis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018, 73 (7), pp.1895-1898. ⟨10.1093/jac/dky094⟩. ⟨hal-02316685⟩

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