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Myocarditis Presenting as Sudden Death in Infants and Children: A Single Centre Analysis by ESGFOR Study Group

Abstract : Background Acute myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart mostly diagnosed in young people, which can present as sudden death. The etiology includes infectious agents (mostly viruses), systemic diseases and toxins. We aim to characterize infants and children with myocarditis at post-mortem presenting as sudden deaths. Methods Retrospective evaluation of 813 post-mortems in infants and children dying suddenly and unexpectedly between 2009–2019. Data retrieved included histological features, microbiology and clinical history. Results 23 of 813 post-mortems reviewed corresponded to acute myocarditis and 1 to dilated cardiomyopathy related to remote Parvovirus infection. PCR identified enterovirus (7), parvovirus (7 cases, 2 also with HHV6 and 1 case with EVB), Influenza A (1), Parainfluenza type 3 (1). Two cases corresponded to hypersensitivity myocarditis, 1 was Group A Streptococcus and 5 idiopathic myocarditis. Enterovirus was frequent in infants (7/10), and in newborns was associated with meningoencephalitis or congenital myocarditis. More than 50% were less than 2 years of age and all remained clinically unsuspected. Conclusion Myocarditis represents almost 3% of all sudden pediatric deaths. Enterovirus and parvovirus were the most common viruses. This retrospective analysis showed that patients experienced viral symptoms but remained unsuspected, highlighting the need for more clinical awareness of myocarditis.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 10, 2021 - 1:33:29 PM
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Oana Neagu, Amparo Fernández Rodríguez, Domitille Callon, Laurent Andréoletti, Marta Cohen. Myocarditis Presenting as Sudden Death in Infants and Children: A Single Centre Analysis by ESGFOR Study Group. Pediatric and developmental pathology, Springer Verlag, 2021, 24 (4), pp.327-336. ⟨10.1177/10935266211007262⟩. ⟨hal-03340856⟩



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